• Supporting those affected by the misery of stigma and exclusion

Types of stigma

In 2016 as part of her research Stella Baker revised her theory of social stigma, which was inspired by the model advanced by American sociologists Bruce Link and Jo Phelan and identified six types of stigma which are common in social stigma. She observed that different stigmas had different characteristics in both external social stigma and internal social stigma noting that different strategies were employed by both the people who stigmatize and those who are subjected to being stigmatized.

Identity stigma

This is stigma based on identity, which includes racism, sexism, xenophobia, and stigma which involves obesity, gender non-conformity and changes in gender identity. It can also include stigma which is associated with disability.

Ability stigma

Ability stigma includes disability, mental illness, joblessness and homelessness.

Material stigma

This is stigma on the basis of income, possessions and perceived social class.

Behavioural stigma

This is stigma which is tied to perceived behaviour, which includes stigma associated with mental illness, autism, Asperger's Syndrome, and non-conforming behaviour.

Health related stigma

This is stigma which is related to health issues, irrespective of whether they are relating to disability, mental or physical health or even perceived weaknesses.

Choice related stigma

Stigma attached to perceived life choices, such as addiction, abuse, people recovering from abuse, ex-offenders and also stigma attached to religious, political and certain cultural beliefs.